COVID-19 is an infectious viral disease caused by the virus known as SARS-CoV-2. It is characterized by fever, cough, shortness of breath, muscle pain and fatigue, however, sometimes in which the disease becomes severe, can cause pneumonia, sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome or circulatory shock. People can be infected when an infected individual emits microdrops of fluids by talking, sneezing, breathing, or coughing.
There are several tests to diagnose COVID-19, one of the most common and used is the RT-PCR test, where the sample is taken by a nasopharyngeal swab or by obtaining the sample from some part of the respiratory tract, such as the pharynx. Despite the existence of this test, there are others that are equally useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease, these are the serological tests, which unlike the PCR, use the serum that is separated from the blood of the patient to be diagnosed. Diagnosis with serologic tests is very important in the identification and monitoring of infected, immune and potentially protected persons. Two of the most common assays are immunochromatographic and the ELISA test.
Fundamentals of a Microplate Reader
Microplate readers are instruments used in laboratories to detect physical, chemical or biological agents contained in a sample being evaluated. They are multimodal teams, which means that they have the ability to perform several types of tests or experiments at the same time. Its main functions include fluorescence, luminescence and absorbance measurements.
All microplate readers are formed by microwells or wells, which is where the sample to be analyzed is deposited. One of the most common tests performed by this team is the ELISA test, for the diagnosis of antigens in the blood. Diseases such as dengue fever, hepatitis B, yellow fever, HIV and COVID-19 can be diagnosed through this trial.
COVID-19 detection protocol through ELISA test and microplate reader
ELISA, is a type of immune assay, the name is an acronym for Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, which means enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ELISA technique is commonly used for the detection of antigens or antibodies, as well as proteins and glycoproteins that can be found in biological samples. In medicine and clinical biochemistry, the ELISA test is especially useful due to its high sensitivity and specificity, the simplicity of the protocol and safety, since no dangerous reagents are needed. The steps of the COVID-19 ELISA technique are described below:
- Serum from the patient is deposited in the microwells of the plate of the microplate reader, where the SARS-CoV-2 antigen is located.
- If SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are present in the patient’s sample, they will recognize the antigen and form a complex. The dish is then washed with a detergent solution to remove non-specific elements or cells.
- The capture antibody labeled with the enzyme is added.
- The enzyme substrate is added for later incubation.
- In those microwells where the sample comes from patients who are infected and have antibodies against the virus, the antibodies that are labeled with the enzyme will act on the substrate and a change in color will occur, this means that the test is positive.
- Color change can be evaluated with the naked eye or quantified through a microplate reader.
- If the test is negative, the substrate does not change color.
Kalstein brand microplate readers
Kalstein is a leading company in the sale of equipment used both in science laboratories and in clinical laboratories, being MANUFACTURERS thereof, we can assure you that you will make the PURCHASE of high quality equipment and technology, of course at the cheapest PRICES. Within our catalog of microplate readers is our YR series ELISA reader which is characterized by:
- You can add or modify open systems, test items, and parameters.
- Large storage capacity for 1,000 test items and 1,000,000 results.
- 10.4-inch touch sensitive color LCD
- 96-well plate, multiple tests on a single plate.