Tissue Processor in Pathological Anatomy

The tissue processor is the equipment for automatic dehydration, prepreg and infiltration of biological samples. Dehydration is carried out by immersing the sample in increasing concentrations of ethanol; prepreg by dipping the sample in xylene; and infiltration by immersion in liquid paraffin.
The equipment is integrated into the Image Analysis and Immunohistochemistry support platform. Its use is available to all researchers and technicians, but requires prior training, authorization and registration.

Pathological Anatomy is the branch of medicine that is responsible for the microscopic analysis of tissue samples in order to determine and / or diagnose diseases. For this reason, the importance of this analysis since through it it is possible to determine the causes, development and consequences of diseases.

What is pathological anatomy?

Pathological anatomy is the science that studies the pathophysiological and morphological alterations of the disease. Study the disease at the organic, tissue, cellular, subcellular, and molecular level. It's divided in:

General Pathological Anatomy: Study principles common to groups of diseases, which allow the development of a doctrine of more or less universal validity.
Special Pathological Anatomy or Surgical Pathology: Study the pathophysiological and morphological bases of each particular disease.

The main objective of pathological anatomy is not only to study the evolution and causes of a disease, but also to make a prognosis of the effects that different diseases can have on human beings. To do this, tumor cells and body tissues are analyzed.

Thus, within pathological and cytodiagnostic studies, two types of tests are differentiated: pathological and diagnostic. In the first of them, a tissue sample of any organ is analyzed with the intention of identifying the type of cell and what treatments would be useful to combat the alteration.

Tissue processing for histological studies

Obtaining the histological material to study

Tissue processing is a very important part of any histology laboratory

Tissue fixation

The samples are usually fixed with liquid solutions called fixatives, which are used to maintain cellular and molecular structures.


The fabric should be washed to remove excess fixative (chemical). Excess fixative during the subsequent infiltration process, including microtomy


Dehydration is carried out using different alcohol solutions at increasing concentrations until reaching pure alcohol.


In this step, the alcohol is replaced by a substance that acts as an intermediary between the water and the paraffin that will be used later for infiltration.


The sample is placed in histological paraffin in liquid state, which is achieved by heating the paraffin above its melting point.


Its purpose is to provide the fabric with a solid support that allows a very fine cut, so it is of the utmost importance that the medium used


After inclusion or freezing, the tissues are cut, that is, sections are obtained. There are different cutting devices


The cells, by themselves, do not have coloration. Therefore, in order to observe tissue morphology, they must be 'stained'. There are many types of stains


The processed tissues are observed with microscopes. There are two basic types of microscopes: optical and electronic.

Microtomes: advantages and disadvantages

Microtomes are cutting instruments for the preparation of preparations that are used in microscopy. To meet the high demands of such preparations, microtomes allow extremely fine cuts. Modern microtomes typically allow cuts from 0.1 to 100 µm thick. For comparison: Human hair has a thickness between 50 and 70 µm. The history of microtomes began with the beginning of light microscopes. In order to analyze objects, they had to be fine enough for light to pass through. The first microtomes were originally simple blades (usually razor blades) with which cuts were made manually. As the demands on preparations were increasing, it was necessary for microtomes to be developed.

The first microtomes, as we know them today, were developed in 1770. With these you could fix the test and adjust the thickness of the cut using screws. Today, mechanical microtomes are made up of a block, a sample holder and a technical equipment for the control of the advance. The quality of the preparations depends on the type of feed, the geometry of the blade and the declination (angle between the blade and the cutting direction).

Our best-selling pathology practice equipment:

YR442 Tissue Inclusion Center

In histology laboratories, a very common procedure is tissue sampling, processing, and staining. This is a very common and delicate process that must be done properly so as not to compromise laboratory results. Tissue processing involves the diffusion of substances into and out of porous tissues. The diffusion process occurs when you process reagents at equal concentrations inside and outside the tissue blocks.

When processing a sample, you must take into account several variables, such as temperature. In the histology laboratory, tissue processing describes the stages in which the sample goes through dehydration and clearance and then goes through the tissue embedding process. Most of the time, the tissues are most conveniently processed through the dehydration, cleaning and infiltration stages automatically.

Types of equipment for pathological anatomy practices:

Tissue Water Bath

It is the intermediate step between cutting paraffin sections and placing them on slides. A warm bath allows the tissue to relax and soften before being placed on a glass slide.

Tissue Flotation

The importance of the flotation bath is that it helps the fabric slats to extend, to later fish them and that they remain fixed to the object holder.

Cooling plate

The cooling process is a fundamental step in any histology laboratory, as it is a fundamental procedure for making good quality paraffin block sections.

Tissue Processor

The tissue processor is an advanced microprocessor controlled tissue processing device. With ideal ergonomic design, reasonable structure, easy operation, fast processing

Paraffin Trimmer / Dispenser

Any histology lab should have paraffin wax to carry out the sectioning process so that the lab operator can view the samples

Slide dryer

The slide dryer is useful for the preparation of microscope slides at the sample mounting stage. Histology labs require high-end devices

Microtome Series

This machine uses an optimized design, with advanced functions, stable and reliable performance and ease of use; the feeding system uses an intelligent control mechanism

Tissue Inclusion System

Inclusion is the most common method of hardening the tissue and consists of infiltrating the sample with liquid substances that solidify after a polymerization or cooling process.

Automatic slide staining

The staining process is a routine technique that reveals exceptional details of tissue structure and cell composition. It is a very common auxiliary technique in the field of microscopy.


What is your ideal laboratory pathology practice kit?

There are countless models, so it is normal that you do not know which Pathological Anatomy laboratory equipment to buy that suits your needs. At Kalstein, we test them to find what you're looking for.

¿What is a cryostat?

The cryostat is a piece of equipment used in the processing of samples for histological or histopathological diagnosis or identification. It is mainly used to freeze and obtain frozen tissue sections or samples that have not been previously fixed.

Inclusion in paraffin

Paraffin is a waxy-looking substance that is made up of mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons. At room temperature it is solid and its melting point can vary between 40 ° C and 70 ° C depending on the composition ...

The microtome and bone cutting

The microtome is a mechanical instrument used to cut biological samples into very thin segments for microscopic examination. Biological samples can be embedded and presented in many ways for sectioning ...

¿What is a microtome for?

Microtomy is the discipline that deals with obtaining fine serial sections from tissues included in paraffin blocks for their subsequent study by optical and / or electronic microscopy, which makes it one of the basic pillars of procedural techniques of Pathological anatomy.

Equipment for pathological anatomy practices:

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