Electrophoresis is an analytical method in which a controlled electric current is used in order to separate biomolecules according to their size to electric charge ratio, using a gelatinous matrix as a base. This technique has a variety of practical uses, such as forensic medicine for human identification, the human genome project, protein and genetic mutation research, and clinical diagnostic testing.

Electrophoresis is carried out with equipment composed of a negative charge at one end and a positive charge at the other, called an electrophoresis system. When inserting charged molecules, in this environment, the negative ones will go to one extreme and the positive ones to the other corresponding. For example, when analyzing proteins on a gel, in these kits, the entire protein is taken to analyze its size. In this way, the shorter ones will migrate to the poles more quickly and will be reflected in the lower part of the gel. Instead, the longest will be at the top.

Types of Electrophoresis a laboratory may need


Horizontal gel electrophoresis uses the basic theory for the separation of DNA, RNA or protein molecules according to their respective molecular size and charge. In this technique, the gel is present in a horizontal orientation and is immersed in a buffer that is continuous. The agarose gel is used to separate the gel box into two compartments.

One end of the gel box contains an anode, while the other end contains a cathode. When a current is applied, the buffer used in this technique allows the creation of a charge gradient. When the load is applied, the gel tends to heat up.

The buffer also functions as a coolant, keeping the temperature at optimal levels. Recirculation of the running buffer prevents the formation of a pH gradient. A discontinuous buffer system cannot be used in horizontal gel electrophoresis as the two compartments of the gel system connect with the running buffer.


The vertical gel electrophoresis technique works according to the primary theory of gel electrophoresis, but is considered to be more complex than the horizontal gel electrophoresis method. This technique uses a discontinuous buffer. A cathode is located in the upper chamber, and the anode is located in the lower chamber. The electrodes present in each compartment provide the required electric field. A thin layer of gel is poured between the two mounted glass plates.

Therefore, the upper part of the gel is immersed in the upper chamber, and the lower part of the gel is immersed in the lower chamber. Once the current is applied, a small portion of the buffer moves to the lower chamber from the upper chamber through the gel.

In vertical gel electrophoresis, the buffer only flows through the gel. This allows precise control of the voltage gradient during the separation stage. Acrylamide gel can be used as the compartments are not exposed to atmospheric oxygen. Due to the smaller pore size of the acrylamide gel, precise separation can be achieved with higher resolution.


At Kalstein you can find the ideal electrophoresis for your laboratory

There are a myriad of models, so it is normal that you do not know which Electrophoresis to buy to meet your needs. At Kalstein, we evaluate you to find what you're looking for.

Cellulose Acetate Membrane Horizontal Electrophoresis YR03424

You can adjusting the position of the adjusting rod according to the medium length, to meet the different...


        Vertical Electrophoresis                          Tank YR03432                                              

Vertical gel electrophoresis is a more complex set-up compared to horizontal gel system. Researchers normally...


       Vertical Electrophoresis                           Tank YR03433                                      

Vertical gel electrophoresis is a more complex set-up compared to horizontal gel system. Researchers normally ...


Horizontal Electrophoresis                            YR03422                                     

YR horizontal gel electrophoresis units have been designed by scientists with the laboratory environment in mind...


Our Best Selling Electrophoresis

  • Vertical gel electrophoresis is a more complex set-up compared to horizontal gel system. Researchers normally use this system to separate proteins instead of nucleic acids. However, before you separate proteins, you need to disrupt the quaternary structure of proteins into the linear strand

    Characteristic features

    • The installation of the glass plate in just 15 seconds, and does not need the knob, fast and convenient.
    • With the gel making device modular, you can make multi slab gel at the same time.
    • Safety cover open button design, convenient opening the cover.
    • Abundant buffer not only guarantees cooling effects, but also keeps the pH Value stable during the whole experiment process.
    • Auto-switch-off when the lid is removed.

Analysis of the best Electrophoresis for your laboratory

    What is electrophoresis?                  

Electrophoresis is an analytical method in which a controlled electric current is used in order to separate...


  Gel Electrophoresis: How does it work?

Electrophoresis in agarose or polyacrylamide gels is one of the methodologies most used in the laboratory...


Tools used in gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a group of techniques used in order to separate molecules, based on their properties such...


Fundamentals of electrophoresis

Electrophoresis consists of a technique that allows the separation of biomolecules according to their mobility...


Guides to becoming an expert in Electrophoresis

Electrophoresis equipment are essential products in a laboratory, we provide guides and recommendations for better use, so you can work as an expert.

Parts and care of a power source for electrophoresis

A power source for electrophoresis is an electrical equipment that has the function of managing the current in a constant ...

Importance of Electrophoresis for Paternity Tests

Strictly speaking, a paternity test is not a genetic test because it provides little information about inherited genes ...

Benefits of using Electrophoresis in Veterinary Medicine

Undoubtedly, the possibility of using molecular genetics in the field of veterinary sciences and agriculture, is that the production ....

Electrophoresis chamber power source: How does it work?

The power source for electrophoresis chambers is the source in charge of providing electricity to the electrophoresis system that is being used, in other words, it provides the necessary energy for this system to function properly; reason for which it is...

Frequently Asked Questions about Electrophoresis from our customers

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